Some scholars claim that it originated from Tynes, which was mentioned by Diodorus Siculus and Polybius in the course of descriptions of a location resembling present-day Al-Kasbah; Tunis's old Berber village. However, studies were undertaken in the 1930s with the arrival of the first anthropologists who found that the space of the Medina is not random: the houses are based on a socio-cultural code according to the types of complex human relations.  Among other projects are a line to the city of Ennasr (8.4 km) and the extension of the Tunis-Ettadhamen to Mnihla (1.7 km).  The number of people living below the poverty line, falling at the national level, remains higher in urban areas. The soils are heavy and contain limestone in the north but are lighter and sandy containing clay in the south. Charles, suffering losses from the corsairs operating out of Djerba, Tunis, and Algiers, agreed to reinstate Mulai Hassan in exchange for his acceptance of Spanish suzerainty. , The presence of modern churches in Tunis are also testimony to the French presence for half a century. Practicing the Maliki rite as the vast majority of Tunisia's Mosques. Average weather, temperature, rainfall, when to go, what to pack. The Arab League was headquartered in Tunis from 1979 to 1990. Averages are for Tunis-Carthage, which is 4 miles from Tunis. 1881 - French troops occupy Tunis. , The historical study of Carthage is problematic.  In 2008, the government announced the start of construction of a large sports complex that will include several sports academies, a 20,000-seat stadium, and a swimming centre. Bab Souika (initially known as Bab El Saqqayin) had a strategic role to keep the roads to Bizerte, Béja and Le Kef. The climate here is classified as Csa by the Köppen-Geiger system. But east of the original nucleus, first with the construction of the French Consulate, the modern city was built gradually with the introduction of the French protectorate at the end of the 19th century, on open land between the city and the lake. The average annual temperature is 18.1 °C | 64.6 °F in Tunis.  Greek cities contended with Carthage over Sicily, and the Romans fought three wars against Carthage. A 60,000-seat stadium was also built in Radès for the Mediterranean Games in 2001 at an estimated cost of 170 million dinars, with nearly half of the loans financed by South Korean businessmen. Film producers and cinema have long been present in the city of Tunis. The Ottoman Uluç Ali Reis, at the head of an army of janissaries and Kabyles, retook Tunis in 1569.  Under the reign of Hussein Bey II, naval defeats by the British (1826) and French (1827) saw the French become increasingly active in the city and in the economy.. Among the priority lines were: Tunis-Borj Cédria (23 km) where modernization and electrification are already planned; Tunis-Mohamedia-Fouchana (19.4 km); Tunis-Manouba-Mnihla (19.2 km); Tunis-Ezzouhour-Sidi Hassine Séjoumi (13.9 km). After 1591, the Ottoman governors (Beys) were relatively independent, and both piracy and trade continued to flourish. Tunis and its suburbs have many of the major Tunisian universities including the University of Tunis, Tunisia Private University, University of Ez-Zitouna, the University of Tunis – El Manar, the University of Carthage and the Manouba University. The growing metropolitan area is served by an extensive network of public transportation including buses, an above-ground light rail system (le Metro), as well a regional train line (the TGM) that links the city centre to its closest northern suburbs. M. Th Houtsma, First Encyclopaedia of Islam: 1913–1936, BRILL, 1987 p.839, Albert Habib Hourani, Malise Ruthven (2002). After the war, the city faced new transformations as the modern portion grew in importance and extended its network of boulevards and streets in all directions. When the Arab Muslim troops conquered the region at the end of the 7th century, they established themselves at the outskirts of ancient Tunes, and the small town soon became the city of Tunis that could easily be taken for an Arab foundation. The greater metropolitan area of Tunis, often referred to as "Grand Tunis", has about 2,700,000 inhabitants. Tunis has some large parks, many of which were installed at the end of the 19th century by the authorities of the French protectorate. The average annual temperature is 18.1 °C | 64.6 °F in Tunis. In 1964 the Dar Ben Abdallah, a palace probably dating back to the 18th century, became the seat of the capital's Museum of Arts and Popular Traditions. However, Tunis remained modestly sized compared to Carthage during this time.. It was completely rebuilt in 864 and is a prestigious place of worship, and was long an important place of culture and knowledge with the University of Ez-Zitouna on the premises until the independence of Tunisia. After World War II, suburbs began to rapidly spring up on the outskirts of Tunis. South-east of the Avenue Bourguiba the district of La Petite Sicile (Little Sicily) is adjacent to the old port area and takes its name from its original population of workers from Italy. The important transport authorities are the Société des Transports de Tunis (STT) and the Ministry of Transport (Airports) Although some palaces and houses date back to the Middle Ages, a greater number of prestigious houses were built in the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries such as Dar Othman (early 17th century), Dar Ben Abdallah (18th century), Dar Hussein, Dar Cherif and other houses. There are also Christian churches and temples : Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Tunis (Catholic Church), Protestant churches, Evangelical Churches.. There are also a number of other post-secondary institutions, such as the National School of Engineers of Tunis, the National School of Science, the Graduate School of Communications of Tunis, and the Higher Institute of Technological Studies in Communications of Tunis. VIEW BY REGION United States Alaska Great Plains Hawaii Mid-Atlantic Midwest Northeast Rocky Mountains South Southwest West. Located near the Bab Souika, the neighborhood of Halfaouine which gained international attention through the film 'Halfaouine Child of the Terraces'. Its population grew by additions from various ethnicities, among which were Moorish refugees from Spain, and economic activities diversified. From the early days of its founding, Tunis has been considered an important military base. Having previously played a minor role behind Kairouan and Mahdia, Tunis was promoted to the rank of provincial capital. To traditional industry and trade with distant lands was added the activity of the Barbary pirates, then in their golden age.  In the 21st Century, the port of Tunis underwent further transformation with a marina as part of the redevelopment district of La Petite Sicile. , Ruins of the Baths of Antoninus in Carthage, The Lady of Carthage mosaic, one of the major surviving pieces of Byzantine art in modern Tunisia, Tunis was originally a Berber settlement. During this period, the city prospered as a centre of commerce.  The park covers an area of more than one hundred hectares across roads that can be explored on foot or by car. North of the Al-Zaytuna Mosque is the Souk El Attarine, built in the early 18th century. Only the Bey of Tunis refused to comply, with the result that Blake's fifteen ships attacked the Bey's arsenal at Porto Farina (Ghar el Melh), destroying nine Algerian ships and two shore batteries, the first time in naval warfare that shore batteries had been eliminated without landing men ashore. The climate in Tunisia can vary per region. The Olympic village was financed by an investment estimated at 50 million dinars.  In the system of Roman roads for the Roman province of Africa, Tunis had the title of mutatio ("way station, resting place"). A naval expedition led by Charles himself was dispatched in 1535, and the city was recaptured. In 1955 he placed his student Mohamed Saâda in charge of the ensemble, which at that time included the best artists, and later merged with the ensemble of Radio Tunis.  The Hammouda Pasha Mosque, built in 1655, is the second mosque built by the Hanafi rite in Tunis. The city quickly spread out of its fortifications: it divided into a traditional Arab-populated old city, and a new city populated by immigrants, with a different structure from that of the traditional medina. He felt very lonely and could not hold back the tears coming from his eyes. The winters are rainier than the summers in Tunis. Winter is the wettest season of the year, when more than a third of the annual rainfall falls during this period, raining on average every two or three days. The city of Tunis, whose size has increased significantly during the second half of the 20th century, now extends beyond the Tunis Governorate into parts of the governorates of Ben Arous, Ariana and Manouba. Under Articles 43 and 24 of the Constitution of 1959, Tunis and its suburbs host the national institutions: the Presidential Palace, which is known as Carthage Palace, residence of the President of Tunisia, the Chamber of Deputies and the Chamber of Advisors and parliament, the Constitutional Council and the main judicial institutions and public bodies. As for El Bab Bhar, it allowed access to some funduqs where Christian merchants lived in Tunis. The 2008 budget adopted by the City Council is structured as follows: 61.61 million dinars for operations and 32,516 million dinars for investment. The ancient city of Carthage is located just north of Tunis along the coastal part. Tunisia is situated on the Mediterranean coast of Northwest Africa, midway between the Atlantic Ocean and the Nile Delta. The Mediterranean Sea joins Tunisia in the north and east; the coastline of Tunisia on the Mediterranean Sea is about 1,300 km. After the advent of independence, a museum was built there to relate the details of the national struggle between 1938 and 1952. The National Center of the Arts established the puppet theatre in 1976. Average Weather in Tunis Tunisia. Climate information with charts. The Tunis area is served by the métro léger (Ar. The total length of the network will eventually be in the range of 84 km (52 mi). Tunis is the headquarters of the Greek Orthodox Holy Archdiocese of Carthage with jurisdiction over Algeria, Mauritania, Morocco, and Tunisia. You can expect the combination of African and Mediterranean climate. Multi-lane autoroutes surround the city and serve the increasing number of privately owned cars one encounters in Tunisia. The Association of Arab Orchestra of the City of Tunis began its activities at the end of April 1982, as a workshop linked to the cultural center of the city. However, following the Battle of Lepanto in 1571, the Spanish under John of Austria succeeded in retaking the city and re-establishing the Hafsid sovereign in October 1573. Having become an Ottoman province governed by a Pasha who was appointed by the Sultan based in Constantinople, the country attained a degree of autonomy. Ø§ÙÙØ±Ù After independence and following the consolidation of programs of education, the association ceased operations but the library is now linked to the National Library, which provides for its management. It was their last base in Africa, as they retreated towards Sicily after being surrounded by Allied forces from Algeria to the west and from Libya to the east. It worked on promoting Arab music, on music education and training, and on cooperation with various partners both in Tunisia and abroad. Among the places of worship, they are predominantly Muslim mosques. Here are some average weather facts we collected from our historical climate data: During the month of March, April and November you are most likely to experience good weather with pleasant average temperatures that fall between 20 degrees Celsius (68°F) and 25 degrees Celsius (77°F). This went on for a while until one of the pilgrims realized he was upset, he went up and greeted and talked to Ibn until he entered the city. Southwest of the Medina, on the crest of the hills across the Isthmus of Tunis, is the Montfleury district then on down to the foothills of Séjoumi, the poor neighborhood of Mellassine. : المترو الخفيف لمدينة تونس) and TGM (Tunis-Goulette-Marsa), as well as bus services, and is linked to other places in Tunisia by SNCFT, the national railways. The Tunis lies on 3m above sea level The climate here is mild, and generally warm and temperate. A regional gymnastics competition was held in Tunis in 1912 with the participation of thousands of French gymnasts.  The first screenings were held the following year and the first cinema, the Omnia Pathé, opened in October 1908. Abu Yahya arrived on horseback, where all of his relatives joined him. The new building contains a reading room, conference room, laboratories, an exhibition gallery, a block of technical and administrative services, a restaurant, a parking and green space areas. Tunis also benefited from French construction of a water supply, natural gas and electricity networks, public transport services and other public infrastructure.  The Saheb Ettabaâ Mosque, built between 1808 and 1814 was the last mosque built by the Tunis Husseinites before the French occupation. Carthage The medina of Tunis has been a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1979. In 1905 the Muslim Association of Tunisia brought together students from Lycée Alaoui and Sadiki College to organize gymnastics. Tunis has a hot-summer Mediterranean climate (Köppen climate classification Csa), characterized by hot and dry, prolonged summers and mild winters with moderate rainfall. Winter rains sustain shrublands and dry woodlands that form a transition between the Mediterranean climate regions to the north and the hyper-arid Sahara proper to the south. The Spanish governor of La Goulette, Luys Peres Varga, fortified the island of Chikly in the lake of Tunis to strengthen the city's defences between 1546 and 1550. The architectural heritage is also omnipresent in the homes of individuals and small palace officials as well as in the palace of the sovereign of Kasbah.  Under the Aghlabids, the people of Tunis revolted numerous times, but the city benefited from economic improvements and quickly became the second most important in the kingdom. Still further north of the Belvedere Park, behind the Boulevard of 7 November are the neighborhoods of El Menzah and El Manar now reaching the peaks of the hills overlooking the north of the town.  The city has also held the Mediterranean Games twice, in 1967 and 2001, and the international tennis tournament, the Tunis Open, which is included in the ATP Challenger Series. Hammouda Bey faced bombardment by the Venetian fleet, and the city experienced a rebellion in 1811.  The capital is home to approximately 40% of the cars in Tunisia, with 700,000 cars on average used in the city per day. The capital is also linked to its northern suburbs by the railway line that crosses the lake, dividing the lake into two. Some of the meteorological variables that are commonly measured are temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind, and precipitation. Compared to the ancient ruins of Carthage, the ruins of ancient Tunis are not as large. The Gorjani garden, is an English garden located southwest of the city, which notably takes an irregular form, partly due to the steep topography of the land.. Sea breezes may mitigate the heat, but sometimes the sirocco winds reverse the trend.  The city further put itself onto the international basketball map as it hosted the FIBA Africa Championship 1965 and the FIBA Africa Championship 1987. In 1990, Ferid Boughedir shot the notable film Halfaouine Child of the Terraces in Halfaouine district.  The medina of Tunis, the oldest section of the city, dates from this period, during which the region was conquered by the Umayyad emir Hasan ibn al-Nu'man al-Ghasani. , Another possibility is that it was derived from the Berber verbal root ens which means "to lie down" or "to pass the night". From this souk, there is a street leading to the Souk Ech-Chaouachine (chachia). Other arts are also represented in the capital. Tataouine (Berber languages: Tiṭṭawin; Arabic: تطاوين ) is a city in southern Tunisia.It is the capital of the Tataouine Governorate.The below-ground "cave dwellings" of the native Berber population, designed for coolness and protection, render the city and the area around it a tourist and film makers' attraction. But football is not the only discipline to emerge. In his travel account, when Ibn Battuta and his group arrived in Tunis, the population of the city came out to meet him and the other the members of his party. Elle est gérée par l'ambassade du Royaume-Uni à Tunis. Thus, during Agathocles' expedition, which landed at Cape Bon in 310 BC, Tunis changed hands on various occasions. Tunisia - Climate data - Climate information and average monthly temperature, humidity, rainfall, snowfall, daylight, sunshine, UV index, and sea temperature for all cities and towns. On 7 May 1943, at about 15:30 in the afternoon, Tunis fell to troops of British 1st Army and the U.S. 1st Army, which had defeated the German 5th Panzer Army guarding the city. The north of Tunisia has a typical Mediterranean climate with hot summers and mild and rainy winters. The Musical Troupe of the City of Tunis was created in 1954 by Salah El Mahdi. To the west of the park lies the district of El Omrane which holds the main Muslim cemetery in the capital and the warehouses of public transport. Before 2011, unlike other mayors in Tunisia, the mayor of Tunis is appointed by decree of the President of the Republic from among the members of the City Council. temperatures, humidity and precipation. Many protests took place during the Arab Spring of 2011–12. This is where the Belvedere Park lies, the largest in the city, and home to a zoo and the Pasteur Institute founded by Adrien Loir in 1893. In Tunisia, the climate is Mediterranean on the northern coast, with mild, rainy winters and hot, sunny summers, while it is semi-desert or desert in inland areas. In 1270 the city was taken briefly by Louis IX of France, who was hoping to convert the Hafsid sovereign to Christianity. The first true sports facilities were managed under the French protectorate, as illustrated by the development of the Ksar Said racecourse and construction of the Stade Chedli Zouiten in the neighborhood of Belvedere, which had long been the main stadium in the capital before being supplanted by the Olympic stadium, Stade El Menzah, where EST and CA play their football today. Old buildings have gradually been renovated and upgraded and new buildings have come to influence the urban landscape. Its collections developed rapidly, thanks to numerous archaeological discoveries in the surrounding territory. After the performance, the people returned to their homes.. Country: Tunisia, City: Sousse. It is bordered by Algeria on the west and southwest and Libya on the south east. To punish the Zirids, he unleashed the Banu Hilal Arab tribe on Ifriqiya; a large part of the country was set to the torch, the Zirid capital Kairouan was razed in 1057, and only a few coastal towns, including Tunis and Mahdia, escaped destruction. The area became the capital of a powerful kingdom during the Hafsid era, and was considered a religious and intellectual home and economic center for the Middle East, Africa and Europe. Bab Menara (initially known as Bab El Artha) opened onto the medina and on the suburb of El Haoua. Tunisia's climate is temperate in the north, with mild rainy winters and hot, dry summers. Among the places of worship are Beit Yaacouv Synagogue and especially the Great Synagogue of Tunis, built at the end of the 1940s to replace the former Great Synagogue which was demolished as part of the Jewish redevelopment area, the Hara. Climate. It belongs to the Patriarchate of Alexandria and All Africa, and its cathedral, small school and other buildings are in Central Tunis. Because its culture and records were destroyed by the Romans at the end of the Third Punic War, very few Carthaginian primary historical sources survive. The city spilled outside the area of the earlier town and the banks of the lake, and the new districts were modernised with running water (1860), lighting gas (1872), roads, waste collection (1873), and communication with adjacent suburbs and the city centre.  The municipality of Tunis is divided into 15 municipal districts: These include El Bab Bhar, Bab Souika, Cité El Khadra, Jelloud Jebel El Kabaria, El Menzah, El Ouardia, Ettahrir, Ezzouhour, Hraïria, Medina, El Omrane, El Omrane Higher Séjoumi, Sidi El-Bashir and Sidi Hassine. In addition, unemployment is high in young people aged 18 to 24, with one in three unemployed as compared to one in six at the national level. The city retains some of these gates including Bab El Khadra, Bab El Bhar and Bab Jedid but some of the earlier ones have long disappeared. The Arab geographer El Yacoubi has written that in the 9th century Tunis was surrounded by a wall of brick and clay except the side of the sea where it was stone.  The month of November marks a break in the general heat with average temperatures ranging from 11 °C (52 °F) to 20 °C (68 °F). It is also home to Tunis Zoo, which houses African fauna, and the Museum of Modern Art. Tunis is a center of Tunisian culture. Patriarchate of Alexandria and All Africa, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Graduate School of Communications of Tunis, Higher Institute of Technological Studies in Communications of Tunis, List of twin towns and sister cities in Tunisia, European enclaves in North Africa before 1830, "Tunisia: Governorates, Major Cities, Communes & Urban Agglomerations", "The Neo-Punic Inscriptions and Coin Legends", "Carthage – 1960, Page 11 by B. H. Warmington. On the expenditure side, provision is made for the consolidation of hygiene and cleanliness, the state of the environment and urban design, infrastructure maintenance, rehabilitation and renovation of facilities, and strengthening the logistics and means of work and transport..  The National School of Circus Arts was founded following a meeting between the Director of the National Theater and the Director General of the National Center for Arts of Châlons-en-Champagne (France) in 1998.  The term Tunis can possibly mean "camp at night", "camp", or "stop", or may have referred to as "the last stop before Carthage" by people who were journeying to Carthage by land. Revenues are generated by the proceeds of taxes on buildings and vacant lots, fees for the rental of municipal property, income from the operation of the public, advertising, and that the fact that the municipality has capital shares in some companies. This was the RTS (rapid rail network), the local equivalent of the Paris RER, which was to carry tens of thousands of travellers from the distant suburbs of Tunis to the centre by using either existing tracks or new tracks yet to be built. The city became the capital of a Hafsid kingdom stretching towards Tripoli and Fez. The governor appointed by Béjaïa, having reestablished order in the country, did not hesitate to free himself from the Hammadids to found the Khurasanid dynasty with Tunis as its capital. Mongi Gharbi, « Trombes d'eau sur Tunis et certains gouvernorats du pays », "Les normales climatiques en Tunisie entre 1981 2010", "Réseau des stations météorologiques synoptiques de la Tunisie", "Tunis-Carthage Climate Normals 1961–1990", Constitution de la République tunisienne (Jurisite Tunisie), http://www.legislation.tn/sites/default/files/news/constitution-b-a-t.pdf, Budget de la municipalité de Tunis pour l'année 2008 (Municipalité de Tunis), Arrondissements municipaux (Municipalité de Tunis), Population, répartition proportionnelle et taux d'accroissement par gouvernorat (Institut national de la statistique), Stratégie de développement de la ville de Tunis (Municipalité de Tunis), Fiche de présentation de la médina (Association de sauvegarde de la médina de Tunis), Entretien avec Jamila Binous sur la médina de Tunis (TV5), Promenade de Marie-Ange Nardi et Lotfi Bahri dans les souks de Tunis (TV5), "Contextuality, Contextualization, and the New Christians of Tunis", "Saudi Aramco World : The Musical Pulse of Tunisia", Musique et conservatoires (Municipalité de Tunis), "The Cultural Importance Of The Tunisian Carthage Film Festival", "The Carthage Film Festival celebrates its 50th birthday", Statistiques officielles (Ministère de l'éducation nationale), Chokri Ben Nessir, « Une véritable requalification routière ». King Louis easily captured Carthage, but his army soon fell victim to an outbreak of dysentery. The capital is home to a large number of mosques in various architectural styles, signs of construction of their respective eras. Tunis has a hot-summer Mediterranean climate (Köppen climate classification Csa), characterized by hot and dry, prolonged summers and mild winters with moderate rainfall. The other 60% is a fertile area. This small independent kingdom picked up the threads of trade and commerce with other nations, and brought the region back to peace and prosperity.. As the capital of the country, Tunis is the focus of Tunisian political and administrative life and also the centre of the country's commercial and cultural activities. The city has, as of the beginning of the 21st century, a public transportation system developed under the management of the Société des transports de Tunis (STT). The city is the largest financial center in the country hosting the headquarters of 65% of financial companies – while the industrial sectors are gradually declining in importance. In addition, a series of satellite cities emerged on the urban rim and encroached on the municipality of Tunis proper. During the Almohad and Hafsid periods Tunis was one of the richest and grandest cities in the Islamic world, with a population of about 100,000. In the years following independence, the population of the metropolitan area continued to grow: by 21.1% from 1956 to 1966 and by 28.5% from 1966 to 1975 (55.6% between 1956 and 1975). Today, each district has its culture and rivalries can be strong. The 2005 World Championship final for men in team handball was played in Tunis. Founded in 698 is the Al-Zaytuna Mosque and the surrounding area which developed throughout the Middle Ages, dividing Tunis into a main town in two suburbs, in the north (Bab Souika) and the south (Bab El Jazira). In Tunis, the summers are short, hot, humid, dry, and clear and the winters are long, cold, windy, and partly cloudy. . In March temperatures may vary between 8 °C (46 °F) and 18 °C (64 °F), and between 13 °C (55 °F) and 24 °C (75 °F) in May. On the stage of this theater, many performances are regularly given by Tunisian, Arabic and international actors. Profits obtained from the trade in Christian slaves allowed the rulers to build sumptuous structures that revived the architectural heritage of the Middle Ages.. Tunis has been the capital of Tunisia since 1159. This city has a high density of traffic because vehicle ownership is rising at 7.5% per year. On 3 July 2018, the head of the Ennahdha list Souad Abderrahim was elected by the council as the new mayor of the capital.  Not surprisingly, their accounts of Carthage are extremely hostile; while there are a few Greek authors who took a favourable view, these works have been lost. Because of population pressure and the rate of migration to the capital, the city continued to grow, even with the creation of new districts in the suburbs. Tunis is the seat of the Diocese of Tunis, with the seat located at the Cathedral of St Vincent de Paul, The church was built in 1897 on the site of the old Christian cemetery of Saint-Antoine.  The main roads to other Tunisian cities include: Autoroute A1, Tunis-Sfax; Autoroute A3, Tunis-Oued Zarga; and Autoroute A4, Tunis-Bizerte. A symbolic class difference is present between the EST's and the CA's supporters, despite their playing at the same stadium.  During the later 19th century, Tunis became increasingly populated by Europeans, particularly the French, and immigration dramatically increased the size of the city. The Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria also maintains jurisdiction in Tunisia. Tunis holds some of the most prestigious musical institutions in the country. In summer, rain is almost completely absent and the sunlight is at a maximum. Since national independence, the government of Tunisia has encouraged tourism projects and resorts in the Saharan region. The main and oldest of them, is the Al-Zaytuna Mosque, founded in 698 and built in 732 and is in the heart of the Medina. The generally flat terrain and the two main rivers in Tunisia, the Medjerda to the north and the Milian to the south, the soils are fertile.  Youssef Dey Mosque operated primarily as public speaking venue before becoming a real mosque in 1631. A new mass transit was planned for Greater Tunis in 2009. Tunis was quiet during the First World War.  The city is located at the crossroads of a narrow strip of land between Lake Tunis and Séjoumi. The victory against the corsairs is recorded in a tapestry at the Royal Palace of Madrid. The National Military Museum, opened in 1989 in the suburbs west of the city, holds a collection of 23,000 weapons, 13,000 of which date back to the 19th century, and some of which were used by the Tunisian troops during the Crimean War.
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